Business Motivation Model (BMM)

The Business Motivation Model is a well-known model for most Enterprise Architects and are frequently used in multiple business around the world, often together with targeted business consulting or as a part more extensive frameworks like Togaf.

Working with Business Motivation Model in multiple divisions and levels of the organization help you to align your business as well as making sure to improving the result of the BMM as a product. In this way we ensure that the vision, strategy, tactics and supported actions are thought out by the resources best fit to the task.

In this article we will guide you through how to work with the Business motivation model helping you to lead and motivate you workers.

Overview of BMM

The BMM is divided into three main parts called ends, means and influencer. We recommend starting at the top and work through the model step by step, before starting a iterative process where each of the components are reworked through a period of time. The end’s describes the end result, the means describes what you would do, and the influencer describes the impact.

In the picture below we show how a BMM can look like, but its common to not limit the BMM to only one of each component, so feel free to extend the model with multiple goals, strategies, missions and so on.


The end describes then end-result of what the firm or department would like to achieve. This creates an easy to understand target for the people involved. The End’s consists of three parts: a vision, goals and objectives.


The vision describes what the business would like to become. It should be kept short and inspiring for the employees. It must not be misinterpreted as a sales slogan, but be something that the business can work for.


TeslaTo create the most compelling car company of the 21st century by driving the world’s transition to electric vehicles.

Microsoft – To empower every person and every organization on the planet to achieve more.

DNB – We create value through the art of meeting the customer

Alibaba – To build the future infrastructure of commerce. We envision that our customers will meet, work and live at Alibaba and that we will be a company that lasts at least 102 years


A goal is medium or short term, it identifies an important aspect for the business that should be kept in focus or achieved within a limited timeframe. The goals must amplify the vision of the company. Think of it like if we reach all our goals, we also reach our vision or an extensive part of it. Many who write goals use the acronym “SMART” (S=Specific, M=Measurable, A=Achievable, R=Relevant, Time bound) to help them define a goal, but remember not mixing up you goals with objectives. When writing you goals keep in mind that the goals it self also create signals for your employees and will impact how they feel working for the business. Creating only financial goals that will generate return on investment for the shareholders, may not have the impact you are looking for. Therefor try to set the financial goals aside and think of them more like result based measures. And instead keep focused at what can make an impact on the services you deliver.


  • Reduce environmental footprint by 50% within 5 years
  • Become a one of the top 5 market leading companies within the next 3 years
  • Reduce employee turnover by 30% within 2 years

SMART Goal example:

Automate 40 percent of the business operation within 2 years.

  • Specific: Develop a system that automatically control orders and inventory.
  • Measurable: Continue growth without increasing operational cost.
  • Achievable: Educate staff to support the automation system and invest in development resources.
  • Relevant: By reducing operational cost we can take a lead on price in the marked and achieve a greater market share.
  • Time-bound: The system release must operate on a smaller part of the portfolio within 12 months and frequent releases through the next following 12 months will provide confidence that the system meet the set requirements.


An objective is measurable targets that are time related created to specify what needs to be delivered in order to meet the requirements of the goal. These entities are frequently bound up to KPI’s but don’t have to be. What we often see is that the objectives are often skipped and that business is left with goals and KPI’s, but no objective to bind them together. As a result by missing objectives, KPI’s often gets measured and controlled by staff, but action to make changes to reach the objectives are left out. Another observation is that many businesses has a massive set of KPI’s without any goals or objectives, creating a staff overhead as KPI’s may be hard to track and maintain. Therefore when modeling your objectives and KPI’s, try to look out for KPI’s without any attaching strings to the End’s.


  • Expected value of KPI’s
  • Expected value of financial results


The means defines what needs to be done, to reach the End’s. The Means are built up by a mission, course of action and a directive.


Describes the activity that needs to be done and why it is important for the means. Write your mission description with the purpose of describing the mission target and not as a course of action, because there may be multiple actions needed, spread out to multiple divisions of the organization, in order for us to complete the mission as a howl. Also the ones writing the missions, may not be the ones best fit to specify the actions creating the solution.

Course of action

The course of action is what the business will do to fulfill its goals and are divided into strategies and tactics.


A long-term guideline of how to achieve the mission. A strategy often sets boundaries or focus areas that are important for the business and how it should operate. When creating strategy artifacts, make sure that the strategy does not limit the maneuver of the operation services in a way that negatively impacts your operation.

  • Long term
  • What needs to be done to achieve objectives
  • What resources that the business needs to acquire


Tactics are more short term than the strategy and are used to navigate specific areas of the operation. A tactic can support one or more strategies and are often set by actors with service-related knowledge.

  • Day to day decisions
  • Recruitment
  • Marketing
  • Financial allocations
  • Operational adjustments


The directive is a specification of how and by who the mission should executed. These artifacts are often modelled and written outside of the actual DMM model because they can be extensive and not be bound to this singular part of work. So, to ensure reusability we advise to only reference the underlying artifacts.

Business Policy

The business policy is often business regulations and boundaries that must be met. This can be legal obligations, financial limitations, ethical guidelines, security requirements or other important policies that the actors responsible for the mission must follow.

Business Rule

The business rules defines the requirements that must be met and specifies the mission in short concise matters. These business rules are often elaborated by use of BPMN models like Business Process Models or by interaction diagrams.


Influencers are contact points or parts of the service and operation that are affected by the mission.

External Influencer

Customers, partners, competitors, government regulations, resource availability, etc.

Internal Influencer

Infrastructure, business artifacts, competence or specific resources.


When the mission impacts influencers, we often do assessments to reveal eventual risks or opportunities that we can expect. The assessments can be extensive and therefore are advised to be modelled outside of the business motivation model. Assessments can be written by multiple stakeholders for the same influencer, with the purpose of having a more complete view of what lies ahead.

Swot analysis

The SWOT analysis is a framework frequent used to do assessments and consists of Strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

Internal Assessment


Describes what is better with the artifact than the alternative and how it target the weaknesses that the business has today.


Describes what is worst with the artifact then the alternative and what we need to look out for and create supporting procedures around in order for the artifact to work properly.

External assessment


What can be achieved by completing the mission.


What can be a negative impact of completing the mission or aspects in the marked that has to be supervised and managed to prevent the negative impact.

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